Epidemiological studies report that the rates of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension, like vitamin D deficiency, increase in proportion to increasing distance from the equator (16). Deficient or insufficient serum 25(OH)D levels have been documented in patients with myocardial infarction (17), stroke (18), heart failure (2), diabetic CV disease (19), and peripheral arterial disease (20). Recently, the relationship between CV risk factors and 25(OH)D levels was explored among the 15,088 subjects from the NHANES III national cohort registry. In this cross-sectional study, 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity (21). Other cross-sectional studies have confirmed the links between vitamin D deficiency and both hypertension and diabetes (22- 23). Additionally, vitamin D deficiency predisposes to insulin resistance, pancreatic beta cell dysfunction (24), and the metabolic syndrome (24- 25). One study reported that a daily intake of 800 IU of vitamin D compared with a daily intake of <400 IU of vitamin D reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes by one-third (26). A study of 10,366 Finnish children who were given 2,000 IU of vitamin D3 per day throughout the first year of life experienced a 78% reduced risk of type 1 diabetes over the ensuing 31 years of follow-up (27). Subsequently, this finding has been confirmed by a meta-analysis performed on 5 observational studies by a group in England (28).