All runners underwent an echocardiographic scan following American Society of Echocardiography guidelines with a commercially available ultrasound imaging system (Vivid I, GE Healthcare, Ltd., Horton, Norway). Conventional parasternal M-mode recordings of the LV were obtained for the assessment of LVIDd, IVSd, PWTd, AoRt, and LAD. The LV mass was calculated, and all structural data were allometrically scaled (4) to remove the influence of body surface area (BSA). Apical 2- and 4-chamber data were acquired for the assessment of LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, with Simpson's biplane method, and the estimation of ejection fraction. Transmitral peak early and atrial filling velocities were recorded with pulsed-wave Doppler and peak septal systolic and early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocities were acquired with color tissue Doppler imaging. From these data the ratios peak early to atrial LV filling velocities and peak early filling velocity/early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity were calculated. The LV structural and functional data were described for the whole cohort, and differences between male and female runners were assessed with independent t tests.