On October 30, 1958, at the Cleveland Clinic, Dr. F. Mason Sones studied a 26-year-old man with rheumatic mitral and aortic valve disease. After completing the left ventricular angiogram, he intended to perform an aortogram and placed the closed-end catheter in the ascending aorta, just above the aortic valve. The pressure injector was loaded with 50 ml of contrast material, and Sones climbed down to the pit under the catheterization table, where the huge 11-inch image intensifier was located, to monitor the injection (Figure 1). He ordered his fellow to fire the pressure injector, but to his astonishment and horror most of the contrast material was delivered directly into the right coronary artery. Fearing the worst, Sones leaped up from the pit and grabbed a scalpel to open the chest and perform open cardiac massage, but to everyone's relief the patient only had asystole for approximately 5 s, followed by sinus bradycardia. After vigorous coughing and an injection of atropine sulfate, normal sinus rhythm was restored, and the patient recovered within a minute, perplexed to see Sones with the scalpel in his hand, ready to attack (1).