The current AHA dietary guidelines recommend combined EPA and DHA in a dose of approximately 1,000 mg/day in patients with CHD (9). This dose is largely determined from the GISSI-Prevenzione study, in which a dose of 850 mg was used. For those individuals without CHD, the AHA recommends 2 oily fish meals per week. This has been shown to be equivalent to about 500 mg/day of combined EPA and DHA, the intake associated with the lowest risk for CHD death in several U.S. prospective cohort studies (84). Several other major organizations, including the National Cholesterol Education Program (85), the World Health Organization (86), the European Society of Cardiology (87), the United Kingdom Scientific Advisory Committee in Nutrition (88), and the American Diabetes Association (89), have all provided guidelines that address increasing consumption of fish. Based on the GISSI-HF study results, we believe that these recommendations, similar to CHD, should also be extended to patients with HF (e.g., approximately 800 to 1,000 mg of combined EPA/DHA daily) (8,54). In patients with hypertriglyceridemia, moderate to high doses of ω-3 PUFA (Lovaza, 4 g/day) is an FDA-approved therapy (55- 57,64), and this therapy can be safely combined with any other lipid therapies (statins, fibrates, niacin, and so on). Further studies are needed that will determine the optimal dosing in various populations, especially those with HF, as well as the effects of various doses on the primary and secondary reduction of AF and more detailed mechanisms responsible for the benefits noted. Further studies will be needed to address the potential benefits of assessing blood levels of ω-3 PUFA to determine its role in dosing adjustments and its value in CV protection (90). Finally, studies are needed to determine the optimal mixture of DHA relative to EPA in various populations, as well as in light of the recent OMEGA trial (22), to determine the role of ω-3 PUFA in maximally treated contemporary post-MI patients or other patients with relatively low-risk CHD.