Hepatic CRP production is stimulated by IL-6 and, to a lesser extent, by IL-1 and TNF-alpha. Individuals who are obese and/or hyperinsulinemic have increased adipocyte production of inflammatory markers, including CRP, IL-6, and TNF-alpha (46- 47). A multidisciplinary program to reduce body weight in obese women through lifestyle changes, including a low-calorie diet, and increased physical activity, reduced IL-6, IL-18, CRP, and insulin resistance, whereas adiponectin levels increased (48). Adiponectin is a novel adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties (49). Evidence also exists that leptin levels are reduced in physically active individuals independent of BMI (33) and that leptin is associated with CRP (50). Moreover, in centrally obese individuals, omental adipocytes produce more IL-6 than do abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes (51). Consequently, physical activity could decrease resting levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha and, ultimately, CRP production, by reducing obesity and leptin and increasing adiponectin and insulin sensitivity (52). Once again, however, the relationship between increased physical activity and lower CRP persists even after adjusting for BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and fasting insulin concentration (26- 33,39- 42), suggesting that other factors contribute to the exercise-related anti-inflammatory effect.