The MRI examination was performed with a 1.5-T MR imager (CV/I, General Electric Medical Systems, Waukesha, Wisconsin) using a dedicated phased-array cardiac coil. Transaxial black blood images were acquired using a double-inversion recovery (blood suppression) fast-spin echo sequence (time to repetition [TR] = 1 R-R interval, time to echo [TE] = 5 ms, slice thickness = 5 mm, interslice gap = 5 mm, and field of view [FOV] = 24 to 28 cm). Following this, the same sequence was repeated with the chemical shift fat suppression manually tuned to the fat peak to generate fat-suppressed axial black blood images. Bright blood cine imaging in the axial and short-axis planes was acquired by a steady-state, free-precession pulse sequence (TR = 3.5, TE = 1.2 ms, flip angle = 45°, slice thickness = 8 mm, interslice gap = 4 mm, and FOV = 36 to 40 cm, 10 views per segment, 35 ms temporal resolution per cine phase). After intravenous administration of an MRI contrast agent (0.2 mmol/kg of gadodiamide [Omniscan, Amersham Health, Princeton, New Jersey]), inversion recovery prepared breath-hold cine gradient-echo images were obtained 20 min after contrast agent injection. Initially, three-dimensional inversion recovery prepared breath-hold, fat-suppressed, gradient-echo imaging was performed in the short axis and axial planes. The use of a variable sampling in time segmentation (14) scheme enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional volumes in a single 24-heartbeat breath-hold. For three-dimensional imaging, the parameters were as follows: TR/TE = 4.7 ms/1.7 ms, flip angle = 20°, slice thickness = 5 to 7 mm, matrix = 256 × 160, half Fourier acquisition, 12 slices interpolated to 24, FOV = 360 × 270 mm. A single three-dimensional slab encompassed both ventricles. This was followed by breath-hold two-dimensional imaging (7.2/3.2; inversion time optimized 150 to 200 ms; flip angle = 25°; slice thickness = 8 mm; slice gap = 2 mm; number of excitations = 2; matrix = 256 × 192; and FOV = 360 × 270 mm). The two-dimensional MDE MRI scans were obtained in the short axis and axial planes at 10-mm intervals covering the entire right and left ventricles.